By Stephen Wendel

Literature REview Overview

This paper seeks to summarize the existing literature on racial and ethnic differences in retirement outcomes, starting with preretirement saving behavior and its effects on postretirement standards of living and happiness.

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About the Author

Dr. Stephen Wendel is an applied behavioral scientist who helps organizations understand and apply behavioral science. He currently serves as a Vice President at the Busara Center for Behavioral Economics, where he is responsible for technical excellence and growing Busara’s presence in new domains. He previously founded and led the teams at Morningstar and HelloWallet, developing and field-testing hundreds of interventions. Stephen has authored three books on applied behavioral science and founded the non-profit Action Design Network, educating the public across fifteen cities on how to apply behavioral insights.

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